Kamis, 10 April 2008

perkembangan sepeda ontel

Many of the old Dutch brands are not remembered any more, which doesn't necessarily mean that they didn't play an important role in their time. However, in choosing which brands to describe in more detail on the following pages, the most important criterion was that they still had to be well-known and still could be seen in relevant numbers on the streets today. Even though they may be a B-brand of some manufacturer now.

It is remarkable that these 15 selected brands are not equally spread over the whole country. Most of these companies were originally based in one of the relatively lightly populated Northern and Eastern provinces. This is shown on the map at the bottom of this page. From there you can forward to a description of the brand of your choice.

In the table shown below you find an overview of the beginning and the end of several relevant Dutch bicycle companies.

year of foundation (f) or the beginning of the bicycle production (p) company, place year of discontinuation of the (independant) bicycle production reason of discontinuation
1869 (f) Burgers, Deventer 1961 take-over by Pon
1871 (f)
1884 (p) Fongers, Groningen 1961 take-over by Phoenix
1884 (f) Cyrus, Venlo 1971 bankruptcy
1886 (f)
c. 1893 (p) Eysink, Amersfoort 1953 almost bankrupt, continuation as a sole builder and seller of motorized vehicles
1887 (f)
1890 (p) Simplex, Amsterdam 1965 production moved to Juncker, Apeldoorn
1897 (f) Gruno, Winschoten 1968 closed, after being moved and mergered
1898 (f)
1924 (p) Juncker, Apeldoorn 1968 take-over of Juncker, Locomotief and Simplex by Gazelle
1898 (f)
191x (p) Durabo, Woudenberg 1983 liquidation
1898 (f)
1930 (p) Pon, Amersfoort 1985 bankruptcy, take-over by Union
1892 (f)
1902 (p) Gazelle, Dieren - -
1894 (f)
1904 (p) Germaan, Meppel 1963 take-over by Phoenix
1902 (f)
1929 (p) Locomotief, Amsterdam 1952 merger with Simplex
1903 (f)
1913(?) (p) Bato, Tiel 1958 take-over by Batavus
1904 (f)
1911 (p) Union, Dedemsvaart 2005 brand name is sold, production is separated from brand
1904 (f)
c. 1907 (p) Batavus, Heerenveen - -
1904 (f)
1917 (p) Phoenix, Leeuwarden 1970 take-over of Phoenix, Fongers and Germaan (PFG) by Batavus
1908 (f) Veeno, Bedum 1967 bankruptcy
1909 (p) /
1923 (p) Magneet, Weesp 1969 brand name and production sold to Batavus
1910 (f)
192x (p) Mustang, Assen 1985 liquidation
1913 (f)
1917 (p) Empo, Vorden 1979 bankruptcy, take-over by Pon
1914 (f) Maxwell, Amsterdam 1961 liquidation
1917 (f)
1920 (p) Sparta, Apeldoorn - (1999 take-over by Accell)
1918 (f) Primarius, Meppel 1962 liquidation
c. 1920 (f) Eroba, Echt 2005 company no longer exists after a series of insolvencies
1921 (f) RIH, Amsterdam - -
1844 (f)
c. 1930 (p) RS Stokvis, Rotterdam 1968 cycle works were closed down
1922 (f)
1954 (p) Kaptein, Amsterdam/Arnhem about 1963 contracted out to PFG and in 1966 to Union (Unikap)
1939 (f) Burco, Amsterdam 2004 sold to Accell (Batavus)
1945 (f) Cové, Blerick - -
1948 (f) Rivel, Surhuisterveen 1993 take-over by Union

Under this caption you will find comprehensive information about the Dutch bicycle industry as well as the major Dutch bicycle brands. If you want to know anything which you can't find on these pages, please mail me.


1887: Foundation of the "Simplex Automatic Machine Company" in Utrecht at the Stationdwarsstraat by the Englishman Charles Bingham, one of the initiators and first president of the ANWB (Royal Dutch Touring Club) in 1883.

1890: Simplex stops making small automats and starts producing Simplex-branded bicycles. The company is now situated at the Leidscheweg.

1892: Simplex moves to a bigger location at the Amsterdamschestraatweg. The staff increases from twelve to sixty workers.

1893: Piet Leeuwenberg from Delft joins the direction. In the same year, he is one of the initiators of the RAI (Association of Dutch Bicycle Manufacturers). A few years later he will take over the whole company. The Leeuwenbergs will have seat in the Simplex management until 1959.

1896: Simplex moves to the Overtoom in Amsterdam. The company now employs 100 workers and soon produces about 5,000 units. Later Simplex produces not only bicycles but also motors, cars and railway-vehicles. But bicycles remain the most important production section. Simplex is now one of the biggest bicycle manufacturers of Holland and will keep this status for a long time.

1899: The company is renamed "NV Simplex Machine-, Rijwiel- en Automobielfabrieken" (Simplex Machine-, Bicycle- and Carworks Inc.).

1908: The Simplex stretcher, a tricycle for carrying patients, is the first type of carrier-bike not directly derived from a common bicycle.

1909: Simplex develops the Cycloïde-bearings (groove ball bearings for wheel-hubs and bracket with less friction), which will be a feature of the more expensive models of Simplex for the next fiftyfive years.

app. 1927: Simplex offers bicycles with Simplex-made drum-brakes instead of the common rim-brakes. These drum-brakes were used widely on Simplex bicycles until the late sixties.

1936: After some difficult years the production facilities are being modernized to reach the capacity of 35,000 units per year.

1939: Simplex introduces an alloy cycle which weighs 12 1/4 kg.

1943 - end of 1945: The production is greatly reduced because of the war.

1952: Simplex merges with Locomotief. The new combination is quite successful. Around 1960 Simplex/Locomotief produce some 55,000 bicycles per year, which is 10 % of the Dutch total production.

Simplex "gliding bicycle"

Simplex "gliding bicycle"

1952/53: Simplex moves to a bigger plant in the Pilotenstraat in Amsterdam with a capacity of 70,000 units. By 1954 the production facilities of Locomotief are completely transferred to the Pilotenstraat.

1955: The cumulated production of Simplex bicycles reaches the numer of 1 milion.

1965: The sixties are a difficult period for the bicycle industry in general. In 1965 the production of Simplex/Locomotief is contracted out to Juncker in Apeldoorn. In Amsterdam only a sales department remains.

1967: Simplex, Locomotief and Juncker merge to form the Dutch Cycleworks Union (Verenigde Nederlandse Rijwielfabrieken - VNR).

1968: The attempted rescue through merging does not produce the desired result and Gazelle takes over VNR in 1968. The Apeldoorn site is closed-down around 1971 and the three famous brands continue only as B-brands of Gazelle.

2000: Gazelle sells the Simplex brand to ZEG, a German bicycle retail purchase co-operation which is active in several countries.

Simplex and Burgers were the biggest Dutch cycleworks at the turn of the century. As early as 1891 an American customer ordered 100 bicycles from Simplex. Export destinations at that time were Denmark, France, Germany, England, South Africa and South America. In the early years of the twentieth century Simplex was a supplier of the Dutch army, together with Fongers and Burgers. Most of the mounted parts were made by Simplex itself.

One of the special models of Simplex was the "gliding bicycle", introduced in 1953. The seat of this model is fixed via a leaf spring, and the forks are constructed with suspension as well. However, the gliding bicycle was no big success and was only made a few years.

Another typical Simplex construction are handlebars with the brake-rods mounted inside.

Simplex handlebars for rod-brakes

It is difficult to estimate the bicycle production of Simplex. There are still many old Simplex bikes from before the merger with Locomotief, especially bicycles made between about 1949 and 1951, when they obviously sold very well. Many of these are black, heavy ladies' roadsters with loop-frame, Simplex drum-brakes and brake-rods.

The only known milestone is the celebration of the number of 1,000,000 sold Simplex bicycles in november 1955, almost two years after Gazelle established the same production figure. Having started making bicycles very early, it is very likely that in total numbers Simplex was the one but biggest Dutch bicycle manufacturer at that moment.


908: Pieter van der Veen Rzn., who had come to Bedum to take care of the bicycle repair acivities at coppersmith Bodewes, starts his own business in a barn at the backside of his home. Here he manufactures the "Bedum" bicycle, works as a coppersmith, and sells, repairs, nickel-plates and varnishes various parts.

old Veeno badge
1911: Although initially called "P.van der Veer Rzn., coppersmith and bicycle manufacturer", the company for the first time has a real brand name: the "Bedum" cycleworks. In 1912, a new "Bedum" bicycle would set you back Hfl. 40,-, one year warranty included.

1917: Van der Veen builds a new factory at the Noordwolderweg, the Veeno cycleworks. The name is the contraction of Van der Veen and the extension "o", for the use of the name Bedum was no longer permitted because of its geographical origin. The name had to consist of five letters considering the reserved space on all parts. This new building features nickeling and enameling equipment, a sandblowing machine, an automobile and engine repair shop and a warehouse. Furthermore, cars can be hired "for rides".

1920: The company is converted to a public limited company, the "N.V. Rijwielenfabriek Veeno".

1921: Veeno makes six different (ladies' and gents') models: Express, Luxe A, Model A, Model B, Model C1 and Model C2). The company's capacity is enhanced this year, as in 1928, 1930, 1939 and 1957.

1923: Veeno introduces the model Truck.

Veeno advertising sign

1931: By starting up their new modern chroming installation, Veeno is able to deliver all nickel-plated parts in chrome. From approximately 1933 onwards, so-called 'Priests-bicycles' are available. This is a ladies' model with a frame longer than regularly, so that nuns and priests can ride a bicycle without being bothered by their robes.

In the thirties, transport tricycles appear for the first time. There are four varieties: bare (just the chassis), open, with a closed box, and optionally even with an auxiliary engine.

Veeno delivery tricycle

Veeno delivery tricycle, basically of the same type like the Danish "Long John".
This bicycle features "Tors safety forks", a special Veeno construction.
The number of built bicycles of this type is probably very limited.

New in those days were the Tors and the Holfa ("Hollands Fabrikaat" = dutch made) model.

1940: In a letter to their customers Veeno politely requests to order as little as possible. Of course, this has everything to do with the war. Like any other company, Veeno has trouble finding material. In this period, the entire factory is looted by the German occupying forces.

1953: R.J. van der Veen, the founders' son, becomes a co-director of Veeno.

1958: In the anniversary year, P. van der Veen Rzn., the 73 years old founder and director, deceases. Of course, the planned festivities are cancelled because of this sad occasion.

Productionswise the sixties are Veeno's best years. Veeno has a very strong reputation and their bicycles sell very good all over the Netherlands. At this time, more than 100 employees are contracted and output is about 10.000 units per year. Well-known models are Rocket, Spirit, Veenolita and Toer Populair.

But soon Veeno encounters financial problems, just like most of the other players in the bicycle industry. At September 24th, 1965 a moratorium of payment is granted to Veeno. In 1966, the number of employees is down to approximately 35.

1967: This rescue operation fails as well. On february 10th, 1967 the 'N.V. Rijwielenfabriek Veeno' is declared bankrupt.

Veeno Tors

Veeno with Tors-forks

The trade mark Veeno is taken over by Rijwielfabriek De Wilde in Nieuwe Niedorp, along with the names Veenolite, Tors, Rocket, Holfa and Truck. This framebuilder is declared bankrupt by the end of 1977. Van der Sluis company in Surhuisterveen takes over the rights, but that company bankrupts after a fire in 1982. The remains are taken over by Rivel in Surhuisterveen, which in turn is taken over by Union. Nowadays, Veeno bicycles are made by Union and distributed by 'Tweewieler Inkoop- en marketing Combinatie", TWICO, a retailers organisation.

Although Veeno wasn't a big bicycle manufacturer, the good quality of their bicycles is unquestionable. Some details from the fifties and sixties show that it was a rather conservative manufacturer.

For example, they kept making bicycles with the solid 45-mm Thompson bracket (Gazelle is the only one who used this bracket even longer on their carrier bicycles). The fork with closed pads (eyelets) can be found on Veeno bicycles until 1960(!). Finally, until approximately 1960 Veeno almost only made roadsters (28 x 1 1/2") instead of the cheaper smaller wheel-sizes.

simplex 1920-1930

F W Evans 1920s–30s
Author: Hilary Stone

Evans 2 - 250The first builder in Britain of specialist touring bikes, a pioneer in the use of derailleur gears for touring, at least three patents which were of real use to hard riding cyclists, a pioneer in the use of brazed-on fittings and one of the main forces behind the change to the lightweight design of bicycle – is that enough to qualify as a Design Classic?

F W Evans was not himself a framebuilder but rather a man of ideas and a bike shop proprietor. He was editor of Cycling magazine for a couple of years in the very early 20s before setting up his first bike shop in 1922 in Westminster Bridge Road. He issued a 24 page booklet explaining why the new lightweight design (low bottom bracket, brazed up straight and tapered rear stays, 26in wheels and compact frame size) was superior to the old style. As a short aside recent research by David Hinds, the Veteran Cycle-Club’s marque enthusiast for Granby has revealed that Granby were by 1915 building in the new style making them probably the first builder in Britain to do so. F W Evans whilst editor of Cycling promoted the new design and in his new shop stocked bikes in the new design from the more forward thinking larger builders such as James.

Evans 3 - 250
But soon he turned his attention to building frames under his own name in the new design. One of the features of the new design was the double fixed hub with two fixed sprockets – one on either side of the wheel which was turned around to give two different ratios. Of course this was always a slightly fiddly job as the chain tension had to be got just right. In 1925 F W Evans patented a rear fork end with screw adjusters and washers on the hub axle (Right). It allowed the wheel to be turned around and replaced in the frame with a different size rear sprocket maintaining exactly the same chain tension. Other fork ends had been designed to do a similar thing but most were more fiddly to use. For this he was awarded the CTC Silver Plaque for the greatest improvement in cycle design in 1926. He claimed he could turn a wheel around in an Evans frame blindfolded and with one hand tied behind his back and get perfect chain adjustment in 55 seconds!

Another early patented feature of his frames was the Evans Direct Lubrication System. Oil ports were provided in the bottom bracket, head tube and hubs enabling these bearings to be easily oiled with an oil gun. They were much copied by other makers but the Evans version actually had little channels to direct the oil onto the bearings. A nice touch which made maintenance easier.

More important was his involvement with several prominent CTC hard riding tourists (A W Romney, ‘Hodites’ and M H Clutterbuck were just some) in building bikes specifically designed for touring. Very early on before derailleur gears were being officially imported from France Evans built bikes incorporating the Cyclo derailleur gear. When the Cyclo derailleur became widely available by 1930 he featured special touring models with them in his catalogue. During the 1930s he regularly built machines with three, four, six, eight and at least one with 12 (triple chainwheel/4-spd freewheel) gears for his customers. His 30s catalogues were full of advice for customers wishing to use the derailleur. His touring frames also frequently featured brazed-on fittings for bag supports, racks, gears and hub brakes which was far advance of his time.

In the late 1930s he devised a frame layout jig that allowed any frame design to be checked for practicality without doing a drawing. One of these jigs was still in use until recently by Tom Board because it worked so well! F W Evans himself died in 1944 but the shop continued - it was the foundation behind the present Evans group of shops in London.

Evans 1 - 600
Thanks to Chris Pow for the c1927 F W Evans featured.

Pretty much standard equipment from the time was used though he did have his favourites – Lock pull-up brakes (as on the featured bike) were a common feature prior to the introduction and common use of Resilion cantilever and hub brakes in the 1930s.

Frame numbers
Compared to the other important makers of the time – Grubb, Selbach, Granby Evans frames were built in small numbers – probably no more than 3000 during the whole of the 1930s. Unusually the frame numbers were stamped on the seat lug, a feature shared by only a few other builders including Ellis Champion whose frames are very similar in design and features.

A Special model
In 1928 Evans patented a frame with ovalised top, down and seat tubes, the Evans Oval. He claimed that the oval tubes increased lateral rigidity 18% or offered a greater vertical resilience. These frames were made in very small numbers in the 1930s – unlike many of the other frame designs (curly Hetchins, Baines gate) it was not obvious on first sight so did not attract buyers who wanted something different.

Barudax Ontel Manis

Barudak ontel manis merupakan sebuah wadah yang menampung orang-orang yang menyukai sepeda ontel atau sepeda jaman bereto didaerah bandung, kami menyukai sepeda tersebut karena keunikan dan kekokohan sepeda